Topic: Education Law
education services, the State of Iowa vests authority to expel a student from a
public school in the school boards of each Iowa school districts. Iowa Code § 282.4(1). A school board may, by a majority vote, expel
a student for a violation of the regulations or rules established by the board,
or when the presence of the student is deemed to be detrimental to the best
interests of the school. The board may
confer upon any teacher, principal, or superintendent the power temporarily to
suspend a student, notice of the suspension being at once given in writing to
the president of the board.
Constitutional right to a public education, in Goss v. Lopez, the U.S. Supreme Court
held that state attendance laws provide them with a property right in receiving
a public education. On this basis, the
Court ruled that a school district cannot expel a student without first
providing “due process” to ensure the right isn’t taken away arbitrarily for
more than ten days.
or a suspension of more than ten days, due process procedures are required,
which culminate in a hearing before the school board. In making its decision about whether to
suspend the student for more than ten days, or to expel him or her for a year,
the board is charged with considering “the best interests of the school
district” and “what is best to protect and ensure the safety of the school
employees and students from the student committing the
by expulsion, due process under Goss
requires that prior to the hearing, the school district must provide written
notice by regular U.S. mail to the parents and student. According to the School Administrators of
Iowa, the notice should state the
specific school rule that the student is accused of violating AND specifically
state that expulsion is being considered or recommended. The school district must schedule a an
expulsion hearing before its school district board of directors, within ten days
from the date the student was excluded from school.
meaningful defense. When a school
district fails to provide this notice, it violates the student’s due process
rights. See In re Guthrie, 19 D.o.E.
App. Dec. 306 (2001). The School
Administrators of Iowa recommend that if the school district plans to introduce
evidence of the student’s past disciplinary history, this should be stated in
the notice. In addition, the notice
The date, time, and place of
A recital of the rights of the parents and student
The names of witnesses who the school expects to
give evidence and testimony
The parent and student’s right to counsel of his or
her choice at their own expense
The right to cross-examine witnesses against the
The right of the parent and student to produce
witnesses to testify on the student’s behalf
The right of the parent and student to copies of
documents supplied to board members
The right to a closed hearing unless an open
hearing is specifically requested
This notwithstanding, it is notable that Iowa law does not require a school
board member who is biased in favor of or against the student, to recuse him or
herself. Nonetheless, if such a board
member fails to do so, this issue may be raised on a later appeal by the student
to the Iowa Department of Education. See
generally, 281 IAC 6.1(290).
their witnesses and evidence, the school board goes into closed session to
decide the case. According to the School
Administrators of Iowa closed sessions are always taped. After the board has announced its decision at
the hearing, the student and parents are entitled to receive written "findings
of fact and conclusions of law." See In re Shinn (14 D.o.E. App. Dec. 185
(1997)) which states that the due process rights of an expelled student include
written findings and conclusions as to the charges and penalty. The Findings of Fact section should summarize
the testimony of those who testified about the guilt or innocence of the
student. The "Conclusions of Law" part
of the written decision should set out the penalty the board has chosen.
parent who disagrees with the school board’s decision may appeal an expulsion
decision to the Iowa Department of Education by filing a complaint requesting a
due process hearing before an administrative law judge.
special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA). 20 USC § 1400 et seq. Under the IDEA and its implementing
regulations, a school district may suspend or move a student with a disability
to an interim alternative educational setting for not more than 10 school days
(consecutively or per school year) if under the circumstances a nondisabled
student would be treated in the same manner for the same violation.
the IDEA from the student’s current educational placement, a “change of
placement” occurs if a student is removed for more than than ten consecutive
school days; or the student has been subjected to a series of disciplinary
removals totaling more than ten school days within a school year. See
34 CFR 300.530 through 300.535.
disciplinary reasons for over ten days (consecutively or within one school
year), the IDEA requires the IEP team to make a decision within ten days of that
exclusion to determine whether or not the offending behaviors were a
"manifestation" of the student’s disability. 20 USC §1415(k)(4)(B),(C); 20 U.S.C. 1415(k)(1)(A) and (E). This process, referred to as a “manifestation
determination.” 34 CFR § 300.530(a) and (e).
disability if the parent and relevant members of the child’s IEP Team determine
the conduct in question was caused by, or had a
direct and substantial relationship to, the child’s disability;
the conduct in question was the direct result of
the local educational agency’s failure to implement the
except for the following exception and the 45-day provisions described below,
the school district cannot legally suspend the student beyond ten days, and the
IEP team must conduct a functional behavior assessment and implement a behavior
improvement plan for the student. If a
behavior improvement plan has already been developed, it must be reviewed and
modified it as necessary to address the behavior.
the student’s disability, the school district may file for a due process hearing
and ask the administrative law judge to order that the student receive services
in an interim alternative educational placement for up to 45 days, on the basis
that maintaining the student in his or her current placement "is substantially
likely to result in injury to the child or to others." 20 USC §
student’s disability, the school can suspend the student for the same amount of
time that it would suspend a student without a disability for the same
violation, but it must still provide ongoing education under the student’s IEP
during the suspension.
manifestation of the student’s disability, the IDEA specifically authorizes
school districts to unilaterally (i.e., without the parent’s consent) remove a
student to an interim alternative educational setting for not more than 45
school days if the student carries a dangerous weapon to school or a school
function, knowingly possesses, uses, sells or attempts to sell illegal drugs at
school or at a school function, or inflicts serious bodily injury upon another
person while at school or at a school. 20 U.S.C.S. § 1415(k)(1)(G)(i); 34 C.F.R.
§ 300.530(g). The placement must include
services to address the behavior for which the student is being suspended in the
be determined by the IEP team and not the school district or AEA. Doe v.
Todd Co. Sch. Dist., 625 F.3d 459 (8th Cir. 2010), cert. den., 132 S. Ct.
367 (2011); 20 U.S.C.S. § 1415(k)(2); 34 C.F.R. §§ 300.530(d)(5), 300.531.
child who has not been identified as eligible for special education, who has
engaged in behavior that violated a school rule, may assert any of the
protections provided for in the IDEA if the school district had knowledge that
the student had a disability before the behavior that precipitated the
disciplinary action occurred.
if, before the behavior that precipitated the disciplinary action
The parent of the child expressed concern in
writing to the school district or AEA that the student is in need of special
The parent of the student requested an evaluation
of the student pursuant to 34 CFR 300.300 through 300.311; or
A teacher of the student, or other personnel of the
LEA, expressed specific concerns about a pattern of behavior demonstrated by the
student to the director of special education of the school district or AEA, or
to other supervisory personnel of the school district or AEA. 34 CFR 300.534(a)
and (b); 20 U.S.C. 1415(k)(5)(A) and (B).
school district is not be deemed to have knowledge that a student has a
disability if the student’s parent has not allowed an evaluation of the student
pursuant to 34 CFR 300.300 through 300.311, has refused special education
services; or the student has been evaluated in accordance with 34 CFR 300.300
through 300.311 and determined to not be a child with a disability under the
IDEA. 34 CFR 300.534 (c); 20 U.S.C. 1415(k)(5)(C).
regarding placement under 34 CRF 300.530 and 300.531, or the manifestation
determination under 34 CFR 300.530(e), or a school district that believes that
maintaining the current placement of the child is substantially likely to result
in injury to the child or others, may appeal the decision by requesting an
expedited due process hearing. 34 CFR
300.532(a); 20 U.S.C. 1415(k)(3)(A).
When an appeal is filed by either the parent or the school district, the
child must remain in the interim alternative educational setting pending the
decision of the ALJ or until the expiration of the time period specified in 34
CFR 300.530(c) or (g), whichever occurs first, unless the parent and the state
department of education or school district agree otherwise. 34 CFR 300.533; 20 U.S.C.
administrative law judge (ALJ) may sustain the placement decision, or
from which the child was removed if the ALJ determines that the removal was a
violation of 34 CFR 300.530 or that the child’s behavior was a manifestation of
the child’s disability; or
Order a change of placement of the child with a
disability to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting for not
more than 45 school days if the hearing officer determines that maintaining the
current placement of the child is substantially likely to result in injury to
the child or to others.
expedited due process hearing, which must occur within 20 school days of the
date the complaint requesting the hearing is filed. After the hearing is completed, the ALJ must
make a determination within ten school days after the hearing.
agree in writing to waive the resolution meeting described in 34 CFR
300.532(c)(3)(i), or agree to use the mediation process described in 34 CFR
A resolution meeting must occur within seven days
of receiving notice of the due process complaint;
due process hearing may proceed unless the matter has been resolved to the
satisfaction of both parties within 15 days of the receipt of the due process
Article about public school suspensions and expulsions with respect to general education students and students receiving special education under the IDEA.